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Aprendizaje transformacional: fundamento del coaching

En este artículo nos proponemos conocer más sobre el aprendizaje transformacional. Esto nos abrirá la posibilidad de entender cómo ser mejores aprendices, de aprender a aprender.

Creemos que esta exploración es reveladora para entender cómo construimos nuestras miradas acerca de lo que es posible para nosotros como observadores. También nos permite entender  cómo podemos intervenir de manera de volvernos observadores más poderosos de posibilidades de creación de valor, liderazgo y emprendimiento.

Formas de aprender

Podríamos definir una situación de no aprendizaje como aquella en la cual repetimos una y otra vez las mismas acciones independientemente de que el resultado que producimos sea el deseado o no. Un ejemplo de esto son las hábitos que tenemos y que a pesar de que declaramos que no nos gustan los repetimos una y otra vez.

Podemos entender el aprendizaje como la incorporación de nuevas capacidades de acción efectiva. Pero no siempre este proceso lo vamos a calificar como aprendizaje transformacional.

Una forma muy general de describir el proceso de aprendizaje implica la existencia de un objetivo que queremos alcanzar, una situación que implica lograr algo que hoy no estamos logrando.

Eventualmente desarrollamos ciertas acciones para encaminarnos hacia dichos resultados. Es probable que los resultados obtenidos disten del objetivo establecido y en ese caso decimos que existe una brecha entre el objetivo buscado y los resultados obtenidos. Esta brecha es, de alguna manera, el motor del proceso de aprendizaje.

Aprendizaje de lazo simple

Podemos distinguir, desde una perspectiva sistémica, dos formas básicas de generar competencia para cerrar la brecha de aprendizaje mencionada. La primera de ellas es la generación de aprendizaje a partir de la observación de nuestras acciones y la incorporación de mejoras en las acciones futuras en un dado dominio de aprendizaje. Las acciones emprendidas o modificadas surgen de una forma de mirar e interpretar las circunstancias que no es revisada ni alterada, más bien se trata de un aprendizaje que busca generar mayor competencia.

Esta forma de aprendizaje se podría asociar con la expresión ¨prueba y error¨. Chris Argyris, un investigador en temas de aprendizaje transformacional y organizacional, estudió en profundidad el tema de la generación de acción efectiva, y llama a esta forma de mejora de la competencia ¨aprendizaje de lazo simple¨ ya que este aprendizaje deriva de un proceso de retro-alimentación en el que no se cuestiona la forma de observar el desafío de aprendizaje que se enfrenta.

El aprendizaje de lazo simple no altera nuestros modelos mentales, no altera la naturaleza de nuestro observar. Esta forma de aprendizaje puede implicar una retro-alimentación propia del momento en el que se desarrolla la acción, casi instantánea por así decirlo, como cuando practicamos un deporte y en cada intervención podemos buscar mejorar el resultado, como producto de lo que observamos en nuestro desempeño en la intervención anterior, y de lo que consideremos como una oportunidad de mejora.

Aprendizaje de lazo doble o aprendizaje transformacional

Otra posibilidad de aprendizaje de lazo simple implica una retro-alimentación retardada temporalmente. El hecho de capitalizar oportunidades de mejora se da un tiempo después de que observé mi desempeño y distinguí dichas oportunidades. Por ejemplo, una persona que brinda conferencias puede mejorar progresivamente su desempeño al aprovechar las observaciones de su desempeño y aprovechar posibilidades de mejora para futuras ponencias que le toque dictar.

Esta forma de aprendizaje tiende a la estabilización y la adaptación. En una organización puede tender al establecimiento de procedimientos y normas que tienen a estandarizar las actividad considerada óptima. La contracara de este proceso de mejora es su estereotipamiento, lo que hace que la organización se vuelva rígida e incluso burocrática.

Esto se debe a que el ciclo de aprendizaje que generó los procedimientos que se explicitaron y estandarizaron, respondía a circunstancias que la organización enfrentaba en el momento del desarrollo de ese aprendizaje y que no son necesariamente las circunstancias actuales. Uno de los más grandes obstáculos para el éxito futuro suele provenir de los procedimientos derivados de un éxito previo. El cambio necesario para moverse en un mundo cambiante implica otra forma de aprendizaje.

Hay una forma de aprendizaje en la que hay un segundo lazo que tiene que ver con el cambio de nuestra forma de observar la circunstancia que enfrentamos. Esta forma de aprendizaje se suele llamar ¨aprendizaje de lazo doble¨, ¨aprendizaje generativo¨ o ¨aprendizaje transformacional¨.

Esta transformación de nuestro observar implica generalmente advertir nuevas posibilidades de acción al adquirir un nuevo punto de vista, que suele implicar la adquisición de nuevas distinciones.

Por ejemplo, una persona que distingue en su acción la ejecución de tareas y el envío de mensajes puede transformar su observar y por ende sus posibilidades de acción, al ver su desempeño ligado al seguimiento de ciertos actos de habla. Cuando comienza a ver su desempeño relacionado con conversaciones en las que se formulan pedidos y se establecen promesas, y cómo del desenvolvimiento competente de esas conversaciones se derivan sus resultados, su forma de observar su desempeño se transforma radicalmente.

El aprendizaje transformacional es imperativo en un mundo que nos desafía a reinventarnos.

Fuente: www.juancarloslucas.com.ar

25/09/2020

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