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Gestión de la innovación

Proponemos aquí una perspectiva de la gestión de la innovación como un proceso basado en el desarrollo y despliegue de habilidades pragmáticas.

La gestión de la innovación se ha abordado a veces, como una actividad relacionada con la utilización de una técnica de producción de iniciativas. Otras veces, asociada a la presencia de un gran estratega o de una persona genial que hay que descubrir. Paradójicamente, si bien estas perspectivas son las más difundidas no suelen dar grandes resultados. Proponemos aquí una perspectiva basada en el cultivo de ciertas habilidades pragmáticas que se ponen en juego cuando las personas y las organizaciones innovan.

Amar Bhidé es un profesor de Harvard que se dedicó a estudiar la forma en que los emprendedores creaban empresas de alto potencial y crecimiento rápido. El estudio se focalizó en USA y muestra un camino de desarrollo de los nuevos emprendimientos de alto potencial (aquellos que crecen fuertemente en sus primeros años) que puede resultar muy revelador.

El estudio de Bhidé muestra que de los centenares de emprendimientos de alto potencial analizados se pudieron observar los siguientes hechos:

  • El 41% no tenía plan de negocio en absoluto (o sea que no contaba con una investigación sistemática de su mercado y un plan explícito de qué oferta iba a desarrollar y cómo iba a organizar la ejecución).
  • El 26% tenía solo un rudimentario plan hecho a la buena de Dios.
  • El 5 % realizó proyecciones financieras para algún inversor.
  • Solo el  28% realizó un plan completo.
  • Por otra parte, solo un 4% de los emprendimientos recibió capital de riesgo en sus inicios.

El autor evaluó que los aspectos clave del éxito de los emprendimientos de alto potencial estudiados tenían relación con algunos de estos puntos:

  • Las empresas se suelen crear para resolver problemas con los que han tropezado personalmente los emprendedores como clientes o empleados.
  • Los emprendedores generalmente tienen una gran habilidad para lidiar con la incertidumbre y para cambiar rápidamente de rumbo.
  • Los emprendedores suelen tener una gran habilidad para integrar acción y análisis rápidos y con objetivos específicos, como la decisión de seguir en el proyecto o descartarlo y ganar tiempo para usarlo en otro proyecto.
  • Habitualmente los emprendedores tienen una gran sensibilidad para escuchar, aprender y buscar compromisos de otras personas. Sus ventas suelen ser investigaciones.

El estudio de Bhidé también muestra como a medida que estas empresas crecían y se consolidaban, comenzaban a utilizar en forma más estructurada un enfoque conceptual y las herramientas de análisis tenían un rol más protagónico. Generalmente en esas etapas posteriores lograban acceso a capital de riesgo.

La investigación citada muestra que, en la mayoría de los casos, el emprendedor no crea una empresa de alto potencial porque realiza una investigación histórica de su mercado y análisis financieros muy sofisticados.

Más bien la clave del éxito de los emprendedores se relaciona con habilidades como la flexibilidad frente al cambio, la fortaleza para enfrentar la incertidumbre, la sensibilidad y capacidad de escuchar los problemas de los clientes, experimentar y aprender.

Las espacios sociales en general y los mercados en particular distan mucho de los fenómenos físicos que permitieron el desarrollo de la ciencia occidental y su impronta cartesiana. Las economías, los mercados, las organizaciones y las estrategias son nuestras construcciones más que “objetos de la naturaleza”. Por eso, nuestra observación de los fenómenos sociales es siempre relativa a un marco interpretativo construido en el pasado. Dado que el cambio implica que esos marcos sean alterados, una mirada rígida cierra posibilidades de comprensión del mundo.

Podemos decir que el paradigma cartesiano dominante se expresa en la valoración del análisis, la construcción de modelos, la predicción, extrapolación, proyección, planificación, etcétera. Estas acciones se suelen realizar sobre hechos del pasado y del presente, de la misma manera que estudiamos los fenómenos físicos pretendemos estudiar los fenómenos sociales y en ese acto perdemos de vista nuestro carácter de inventores de mundos en el lenguaje.

La creación de realidades nuevas en el mundo de los negocios no está determinada linealmente por los hechos del pasado. Los agentes cartesianos típicos, se relacionan con la construcción del futuro desde la deriva histórica, en cambio los grandes líderes y emprendedores se suelen relacionar de otra manera con el futuro, suelen ver el futuro como una posibilidad que visualizan y se comprometen con su invención. Las destrezas que cada uno de ellos necesita serán diferentes.

Mientras que para mirar el futuro desde la deriva histórica son importantes las habilidades reflexivas (know-what), mirar el futuro desde la invención requiere habilidades pragmáticas (know-how).

Inspirados en el trabajo de Christensen, podemos hacer una distinción entre negocios establecidos y negocios emergentes y señalar diferencias en habilidades necesarias para ser efectivos en cada uno de ellos.

Las empresas que actúan en negocios establecidos se dedican básicamente a cuidar nichos actuales y capturar las oportunidades que puedan surgir. El management de estas empresas se desarrolla utilizando habilidades que permiten analizar mercados, extrapolar tendencias, hacer predicciones y planificar acciones a futuro que permiten mejorar la calidad o introducir innovaciones de sostenimiento.

Esta forma de hacer empresa implica una forma de relación con el futuro desde la deriva histórica, tomando como principal antecedente para la creación del futuro la proyección de las tendencias históricas. La popular frase “miramos el futuro por el espejo retrovisor” intenta captar esta predisposición a buscar el antecedente más relevante para atisbar el futuro a partir lo que ocurrió en el pasado.

Las empresas que actúan en negocios emergentes básicamente inventan ofertas que re-configuran el mercado. El management de estas empresas se desarrolla utilizando otras habilidades que no tienen que ver con el análisis y la predicción de tendencias, sino más bien con la creatividad, la invención y el liderazgo emprendedor. Esta forma de hacer empresa implica una forma de relación con el futuro desde el compromiso con una posibilidad o visión.

En relación con lo anterior resulta interesante tomar en consideración el ejemplo mencionado de la creación de nuevas empresas de alto potencial. Muchas de las prácticas analíticas propias de esta mirada tradicional del management (análisis de sectores industriales, investigación de mercados, diseño de estructura y procesos organizaciones, etc.) no suelen ser las que se ponen en juego para producir nuevas empresas exitosas.

La pregunta que nos interesa es: ¿De qué manera el emprendedor lee el mundo y su mercado de manera de considerar que se abre una posibilidad de negocio interesante?

Esta pregunta puede tomar una forma más general que trasciende el ámbito de los negocios: ¿De qué manera lee el mundo un líder, para ver nuevas posibilidades de crear valor?

En este artículo pretendemos desarrollar una disciplina de la construcción de visión, una disposición al cultivo de posibilidades, a partir de una forma particular de entender el mundo como espacio de invención. Consideramos que éstas son las bases para la gestión de la innovación.

Fuente: www.juancarloslucas.com.ar

25/09/2020

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