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Los 6 principales tipos de Coaching

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Cada vez son más las empresas que están incorporando los distintos tipos de coaching empresarial para aumentar la productividad de sus trabajadores y equipos. El objetivo final que persiguen todos los tipos de coaching no es solamente mejorar el rendimiento profesional, sino también conseguir que a través de un buen liderazgo mejore la motivación y la fidelidad de los equipos, y esto se acabe reflejando en un mejor resultado final.

Se busca, por lo tanto, que los líderes sean capaces de motivar a los empleados y sacar lo mejor de ellos, para así conseguir aumentar la productividad. El coaching es una técnica que puede ayudar a mejorar el potencial a nivel personal o profesional, pero el concepto es amplio y su aplicación puede variar en función de la persona o del objetivo que se busca, o de si se realiza de forma individual o grupal. Según los métodos utilizados se pueden categorizar 6 tipos de coaching:

Tipos de coaching empresarial (y sus beneficios)

Coaching sistémico

La principal característica de este tipo de coaching es que considera a la persona no como un elemento aislado sino como parte de un sistema, o más concretamente de varios sistemas y subsistemas (el trabajo, la familia, los amigos, etc.) que están interrelacionados entre sí. Por lo tanto, todas las acciones que realiza un individuo tienen un impacto directo que provoca cambios en su entorno, pero al mismo tiempo cualquier cambio que se produce en el exterior influye también a la persona y modifica su forma de actuar.

A nivel empresarial, el coaching sistémico entiende la empresa como un sistema de elementos interconectados entre sí, donde cada acción de cualquiera de los trabajadores tiene una repercusión directa en los demás y en la propia empresa. Así pues, cualquier cambio que realice la empresa, por pequeño que sea, tendrá un impacto en todos los niveles de la compañía.

Coaching cognitivo

Este tipo de coaching trabaja específicamente los procesos mentales a través de los que las personas adquieren o transmiten el conocimiento: memoria, comunicación, percepción o creatividad, entre otros. A partir del entrenamiento de las funciones cognitivas este tipo de coaching tiene como objetivo ayudar a las personas a desarrollar habilidades que permitan superar problemas prácticos, mejorar el desempeño y que permitan alcanzar los objetivos de una forma más eficaz.

Este tipo de coaching busca principalmente modificar las conductas inconscientes que hacen que las personas actúen de forma negativa, de forma que se modifique este comportamiento y se actue de forma positiva.

Coaching ontológico

Este tipo de coaching considera que la forma en la que las personas estructuran el pensamiento y como se comunican puede hacer percibir el mundo de una forma distinta. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del coaching ontológico es mejorar la forma en la que se expresan los individuos, ya que considera que el lenguaje no solamente expresa como es la realidad, sino que la genera.

Para eso, el coaching ontológico busca optimizar y potenciar los procesos y herramientas lingüísticas que utilizan las personas, a partir de conversaciones y preguntas que favorezcan el cambio en la forma en la que los individuos se relacionan con su entorno. Se busca, en este caso, hacer replantear la forma de interpretar la realidad y los patrones habituales de conducta y aprendizaje.

Para las empresas, el coaching ontológico puede ayudar a que los trabajadores sean mucho más conscientes de sus capacidades y actitudes, y de esta forma puedan alcanzar de una forma más eficaz sus objetivos.

Coaching coercitivo

El coaching coercitivo es probablemente el tipo de coaching más conflictivo, ya que persigue generar un cambio en las personas a partir de técnicas de alto impacto emocional. El coaching coercitivo utiliza técnicas vivenciales de alto impacto como pueden ser por ejemplo, caminar sobre brasas o cristales u otros tipos de experiencias extremas de superación de miedos o inseguridades. La crítica más habitual que se hace a este tipo de coaching es que se utilizan técnicas de manipulación que en muchas ocasiones se pueden llegar a considerar como poco éticas.

Coaching Programación Neurolingüística (PNL)

Este tipo de coaching se sirve de la Programación Neurolingüística para analizar como la persona interpreta la realidad, y a partir de ese análisis modificar algunas conductas. La Programación Neurolingüística considera que todas las experiencias vividas a lo largo de los años configuran nuestros patrones de pensamiento, y en función del modo en el que afrontamos estas vivencias se genera una programación subconsciente positiva o negativa que configura  nuestra forma de pensar y actuar.

Lo que persigue este tipo de coaching, por lo tanto, es detectar los patrones subconscientes que nos hacen actuar de forma negativa (miedos o ansiedades), mejorar estos patrones de conducta y crear nuevas estructuras mentales que nos ayuden a alcanzar las metas, al tiempo que se reducen esas fobias.

Coaching con Inteligencia Emocional

Este tipo de coaching utiliza los principios de Inteligencia Artificial propuestos por Daniel Goleman y considera que la gestión de las emociones es un elemento imprescindible para conseguir el desarrollo personal.

La Inteligencia Emocional es una herramienta útil para el autoconocimiento, y basa sus principios en que entender de forma adecuada las emociones es necesario para poder tomar mejores decisiones. Este tipo de coaching, por lo tanto, tiene como principal objetivo ayudar a gestionar de forma adecuada las emociones para así mejorar la salud psicológica y evitar problemas de estrés.

Así pues, a través de los distintos tipos de coaching empresarial, las empresas buscan mejorar el rendimiento personal de los trabajadores y conseguir una mayor motivación, fidelidad y cohesión de los equipos. Cada uno de los tipos de coaching usa técnicas o métodos distintos, pero todos tienen como objetivo final aumentar la productividad de los trabajadores para así obtener unos mejores resultados.

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